Observing the branches of one more mature tree (with a stem about 30cm dbh) it was clear that this tree had suffered dieback during Summer 2011. This means that the Chalara fraxinea was present in Britain at least one whole year before realised, as indicated from tree physiology alone. When accounting for the life-cycle of Chalara fraxinea, then it is more likely that it was present from Summer 2010 if not even earlier. It is clear that the pathogen arrived in Britain by stealth before anybody recognised it.